As potential participants in research, children have special needs because of their vulnerabilities and developmental idiosyncrasies. Doctors involved in research on children must respect the autonomy and the individuality of children, be aware of children’s apprehension about medical procedures, and acknowledge the fundamental biological differences between adults and children.The following four principles were announced by the United Nations General Assembly in 1989 as the outcome of a Convention on the Rights of the Child:

  • All human rights apply to children without exception.
  • All interventions must have the child’s best interest as a primary consideration of the highest priority.
  • Children have the right to the highest attainable level of health.
  • Children have the right to obtain information and the right to respect of their opinion.

Adult studies vs Pediatric studies

Many differences exist in physiology, pathology, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics between children and adults. For example, in pharmacokinetics, there are differences in metabolic pathways, in organic functions, and in metabolic rates. In pharmacodynamics, differences exist in receptor functions, effector systems, and homeostatic mechanisms. Growth and development influence side effects, and the dose of medications is dependent on body weight or surface area. Finally, age influences severity of disease, pathological agents, and natural history. These differences imply that extrapolation of adult data on medicinal products for the pediatric population is inappropriate.

Furthermore, childhood has several ages and stages. Studies must be performed on specific age groups such as premature newborns, full-term newborns, infants and toddlers, older children, and adolescents.


Why Pediatric Clinical Research?

The FDA, EMA, and other authorities state that research in children should be supported and encouraged. The Committee for Proprietary Medicinal Products (CPMP) recommends the following categorization of products to be studied in pediatric clinical trials: 7

  • medicinal products for diseases affecting children exclusively, such as surfactant in neonates
  • medicinal products intended to treat diseases that mainly affect children, or are of particular gravity in children, or have a different natural history in children
  • medicinal products intended to treat diseases occurring in adults and children, for which there is currently no treatment
  • medicinal products intended to treat a disease occurring in adults and children for which treatments exist, but where there is insufficient knowledge of efficacy or toxicity in children.


WCCT Global and Pediatric Clinical Research

WCCT Global’s Pediatric Center of Excellence, which includes more than 5 leading Principal and Sub Investigators in this important field, works with sponsors in both early development and late stage research to offer strategies that more rapidly demonstrate the Pharmacokinetics, Safety, Tolerance and Pharmacologic Activity of the new compounds being tested in children.

WCCT Global has carried out studies in children in the following therapeutic areas:

  • Allergy and Asthma
  • Infectious Diseases and Immunology
  • Dermatology
  • Child’s Psychology and Psychiatry
  • Gastroenterology
  • Drug Delivery Device Evaluation

Because WCCT Global has access to healthy volunteers and patients of diverse ethnic lineage they work with sponsors to rapidly get the information necessary to launch a Global Development Program months ahead of the classic development paradigms, hence providing a strategic advantage to those served.


Pediatric Research Ethics

One ethical issue pediatric researcher faces is  that clinical research involves some risk to the subject. Research procedures range from techniques involving minimal risk, such as questioning, observation, and measurement carried out sensitively, to techniques involving higher risk, such as chemotherapy and surgery.


At what point in a drug’s development should research in children begin?

The International Conference on Harmonization of Technical requirements for registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) makes several suggestions regarding the inclusion of children in the development program of medicinal products.  For medicinal products for diseases affecting children exclusively or predominantly, the entire development program can be conducted in the pediatric population beginning with phase 1 or 2 trials. For products for serious diseases affecting both adults and children for which a sufficient treatment does not currently exist, the development program should be conducted early in the pediatric population after safety and tolerability data have been obtained in adults (phase 2 or 3). For other products for serious diseases, the product usually should not be tested in the pediatric population until phase 2 or 3, after substantial experience in adults.

In all cases, efficacy, pharmacokinetic, and safety studies must be performed first in animals, as is required for adult studies. Placebo-controlled trials are inappropriate in pediatrics when risk would be increased by withholding a proven, effective treatment.

WCCT Global feels that no child should participate in a study unless a benefit to children in general will result.  The ethical imperative to obtain knowledge of the effects of medicinal products in pediatric patients has to be balanced against the ethical imperative to protect the individual child in clinical studies and respect his/her integrity and personal dignity.


The 4 Basic tenets of Good Clinical Practice

The 4 Basic tenets of Good Clinical Practice are fundamental principles to guide research in children:

  • respect for life, human dignity, and personal autonomy
  • beneficence (do some good)
  • non-maleficence (do no harm)
  • justice.

From these ethical principles, general guidelines for good clinical practice in pediatric research can be derived.  Trials should focus on the knowledge, cure, relief, or prevention of diseases of children. Biomedical studies must be devoted to reducing suffering and improving the prognosis of diseases. Expected benefit must exceed recognizable risks. Serious predictable risks should be avoided. Only well-designed studies are ethically appropriate. Study protocols must be evaluated by ethics committees (institutional review boards) and reviewed by experts in pediatric issues. Informed consent or assent must be obtained from the child participant and informed consent from the legal representative.


Operational Guidelines

Detailed operational guidelines for clinical investigations of medicinal products in the pediatric population are provided by the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH): 8

  • It is imperative that pediatric studies be performed by medical and scientific personnel who are familiar with GCP guidelines and are capable of a trusting relationship and communication with the child and parents.
  • Studies should be performed in institutions that provide a child-friendly atmosphere with a pediatric infrastructure and personnel.
  • An IRB that is going to review pediatric research should have members experienced in working with children.


The informed consent and assent process

The informed consent and assent process for including children in biomedical research should include:

  • All the information and consideration generally accepted for seeking informed consent of competent adults.
  • Investigators should not place any coercion or undue influence to participate on the children’s parents.
  • Dignity, privacy, and confidentiality of the child and family must be ensured.
  • Information provided to children should conform to their intellectual capacity to understand the reason for the research and the risks therein.
  • The family should be given sufficient time and information to consider the pros and cons of their involvement.
  • Separate age-appropriate information sheets and consent or assent forms should be developed for the parents or legal representatives and for the child.
  • A child should be able to withdraw willingly from any research project without detriment.


Pediatric Asthma Clinical Research

The case of utilizing long-term topical steroids in children can be used to demonstrate an ethical
gray area pertaining to both therapeutics and clinical research.  Long-term topical steroid use is the
cornerstone for two very important conditions often encountered in children.

• Orally inhaled steroids for mild, moderate and severe persistent asthma
• Topically applied steroids for the treatment of atopic eczema

Long term systemic exposure to steroids has many endocrine, metabolic and local associated
adverse events.  A possible reduction in growth velocity, suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary
adrenal axis, effects upon bone structure and bone mass, weight gain and Cushing’s syndrome
cause the most concern by doctors and parents following oral inhalation of steroids.   Reduction in
growth velocity and skin thinning cause the most concern to both Physicians and parents following
long term topical steroid application.

Since the potential impact on growth velocity and linear growth is common to both routes of steroid
administration in the asthma and eczema.  This concern expressed by physicians and parents can
lead to under-prescribing by physicians and even non-adherence to treatment (prescription not filled
or skipped doses) by the child’s parents.  Yet, until recently, no long -term studies have been
documented looking at the effect of topical steroids on growth.  Therefore, this concern has been
mainly fueled by medical anecdote suggesting a negative effect of topical steroids on growth velocity
or a few short-term studies demonstrating that topical steroids were “growth-neutral”.   Physicians
and parents have been waiting for more conclusive information on the potential of long term topical
steroid’s effect on growth in order to provide a higher level of comfort that children will reach their
potential height even while adequately treating their eczema or asthma.

Recently, Rao et al, have published their results of a retrospective, case controlled, study in
prepubertal children with:

• Asthma on long term orally inhaled steroids, followed for 4.1 years; and
• Atopic eczema prescribed topical steroids for 3.9 years

Prepubertal children with Type I Diabetes Mellitus (a chronic medical condition known not to effect
linear growth in children) were followed concurrently and served as a comparative control group.

Data were collected retrospectively from the case notes and growth charts of patients attending
pediatric asthma, dermatology and diabetic clinics retrospectively. The data collected included
demographic data, date of diagnosis, date of start of treatment, regular height and weight
measurements and disease control. In addition for children with asthma, type and dose of inhaled
steroid and number of short courses of oral steroid was recorded. In children with eczema, data on
type and strength of topical steroid was collected. In children with diabetes, regular insulin dose and
HbA1c was documented. Height was measured using stadiometer by qualified nurses in the
pediatric outpatient clinic. No formal pubertal assessment was made. The proportion of children
aged nine years and below who enter puberty is very small.

The inhaled steroids used were beclomethasone dipropionate (strength 200 to 800 micrograms
twice daily), Fluticasone propionate (strength 100 to 375 micrograms twice daily), Seretide (strength
100 to 300 micrograms twice daily). The dose was set based on the age and severity of the child
following the British Thoracic guidelines for the management of asthma in children. The disease
control, as assessed by spirometry findings, varied from good, moderate to poor control.

Topical steroids used were Hydrocortisone in the strength 0.1 to 1% (Iow potency), Clobetasone
butyrate in the strength 0.05% (moderately potent), Betamethasone Valerate in the strength 0.1% to
0.25% (highly potent), Hydrocortisone Butyrate in the strength 0.1 % (highly potent) or various
combinations. The strength of topical steroid depends on the age of the child and the severity of
eczema. The combination of steroids was used in many children. The milder steroid was applied on
the face and the higher potency steroid was applied on to the effected areas in the rest of the body.

Height velocity was calculated and expressed as height velocity standard deviation score (HVSDS)
using the formula;

Height velocity SD score   =     Height velocity – mean height velocity for age

SD of height velocity for age
Mean HVSDS of all the three groups were subsequently compared.


Asthma Eczema Diabetes Mellitus
n 41 42 42
Gender ratio (M:F) 33:8 26:16 22:21
Disease Control Variable Variable Variable
Mean HVSDS 0.466 0.449 0.385

All statistical comparisons between groups (Asthma vs. DM, Eczema vs. DM and Asthma vs.
Eczema) were not significant (p>0.2).

This observed neutral effect on growth following orally inhaled and topically administered steroids is
further supported by a meta-analysis incorporating 21 studies on 810 patients by Alien et al21 which
showed that inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate therapy has no effect on growth in asthma.  Also,
Balfour-Lynn20 studied 66 patients for a period of 13.1 years and concluded that inhaled steroids
administered to 26 children in a dosage up to 600mcgm/ day of beclomethasone dipropionate did
not affect growth.

Although clinicians, parents and clinical investigators may be encouraged by these results which will
eliminate one major hurtle for children who require topical steroids to treat their asthma or eczema
much more supportive research remains to be carried out in order to enable safe use of many other
drugs for children of all ages.  This will surely require the combined efforts of pediatricians, clinical
pharmacologists, researchers, manufacturers, medical societies and regulatory agencies to move
pediatric trials forward with the necessary speed and care.



  • HIV
  • HSV
  • HPV
  • Influenza


Pediatric Trials Introduce New Medicines

The staff at WCCT Global has extensive experience working with the development of new medicines for various diseases of childhood, having successfully carried out numerous pediatric trials as both an investigational site and a CRO managing pediatric studies at several sites. WCCT Global has studied both topical and systemic agents and has also been a Phase II/III investigational site for vaccines and allergy & asthma compounds in development. WCCT Global leverages their knowledge and experience in this therapeutic area to strategically help their clients. Additionally, WCCT Global is strategically based in a densely populated area of 8 million people found throughout the Southern California region and thus has access to a diverse set of patient populations.


Keywords: Description:
inflammatory bowel disease Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine. Crohn’s disease andulcerative colitis are the principal types of inflammatory bowel disease. It is important to note that not only does Crohn’s disease affect the small intestine and large intestine, it can also affect the mouth, esophagus, stomach and the anus whereas ulcerative colitis primarily affects the colon and the rectum.
american gastroenterological association  The American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) is a medical association of gastroenterologists. About 17,000 scientistsand physicians are members of the organization. The American Gastroenterological Association is the trusted voice of the GI community. Founded in 1897, the AGA has grown to include 17,000 members from around the globe who are involved in all aspects of the science, practice and advancement ofgastroenterology.
emerging infectious diseases An emerging infectious disease (EID) is an infectious disease whose incidence has increased in the past 20 years and could increase in the near future. Emerging infections account for at least 12% of all human pathogens.[1] EIDs are caused by newly identified species or strains (e.g. SARS, AIDS)[2] that may have evolved from a known infection (e.g.influenza) or spread to a new population (e.g. West Nile virus) or area undergoing ecologic transformation (e.g. Lyme disease), or be reemerging infections, like drug resistanttuberculosis. Nosocomial infections, such as MRSA are emerging in hospitals, and extremely problematic in that they are resistant to many antibiotics.
adolescent mental health  Child and Adolescent Mental Health is a quarterly peer-reviewed medical journal published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of theAssociation for Child and Adolescent Mental Health. The journal was established in 1996 and covers research on child and adolescent mental health encompassing the fields of psychiatry, psychology, and psychotherapy.
psychiatry social science Anti-psychiatry is the view that psychiatric treatments are often more damaging than helpful to patients, and a movement opposing such treatments for almost two centuries. It considers psychiatry a coercive instrument of oppression due to an unequal power relationship between doctor and patient, and a highly subjective diagnostic process.